Tag: manage.py

Fixtures, default data for your models

So, we started working on our project (finally) and although some of the requirements of the project will change in the course of the following days, we are working on the more general aspects of the site. Among these general “apps” is the help app. Basically it has a couple of static pages and then a hierarchy of categories (folders) and topics presented in a similar way to Google’s Gmail Help Page.

This help app is a variation of the usual Polls or Books examples you get in Django’s Writing you first Django App Tutorial, and is a very good exercise to get up to speed with the development in Django. As the app started to take shape we began to wonder if Django provided a mechanism to load default data into the models…

Fortunately it does! You can read all about loading initial data into models it in the docs, but if you want to continue reading about our experiences and choices, read on!

In a nutshell: You can choose between two methods, fixtures or SQL. Fixtures are database agnostic representations of database rows in either XML, JSON, YAML, or Python objects notation. While SQL, you know, consists of SQL insert statements to populate your data back. Both of these can be stored in files and can later be loaded with the magical manage.py script. Obviously we chose fixtures because of their loose coupling with database layer and using XML for maximum compatibility!

So, to generate a fixture containing the current data in the database of the models of an app you only need to run the following manage.py command in the root folder of your Django project:

python manage.py dumpdata <app_name> --format <format>

Where app name is the name of the Django app whose models and format can either be xml, json or yaml. Is you run that command you’ll get the resulting fixture onscreen, that is of no use for us, we need to save it on a file! No worries, you just need to use the output redirection symbols of your console to push that data to a file. So lets say you want to create a fixture for your catalog app…

Do this under GNU/Linux (I assume it is the same under MacOS):

python manage.py dumpdata catalog --format xml > catalog/fixtures/catalog_data.xml

Do this under Windows:

python manage.py dumpdata catalog --format xml > catalog\fixtures\catalog_data.xml

You may have noticed I redirected the output to a fixtures directory inside the app, this is because the Django documentation recommends that for data dumping (using this path is crucial for the last step in this post!)

So, how do you load the data? Simple, use mange.py loaddata!

manage.py loaddata catalog/fixtures/catalog_data.xml

And you are done.

But the whole idea of using fixtures was to provide a simple way to transport data across the team of developers (we are going to be working with SVN, remember?). So reading the doc a little bit more we find that these fixtures can be automatically loaded when performing a syncdb! You only need to save the fixture file with a special name:  initial_data.xml (xml in our case, for you it can be xml, json or yaml) in your app’s fixtures directory.

Now every time you perform a syncdb, the models will be created on the database and the data from the fixture will be automagically loaded, isn’t that great? It is!

Hope this helps!

Until next time.